May 30, 1854
Kansas – Nebraska Act signed by President Pierce; no land open for emigrant settlement because all titles still held by Native Americans; settlers rushed in anyway.

June 13, 1854
Leavenworth Town Company organized; early settlers primarily Missourians.

August 1, 1854
First Emigrant Aid party settled at Lawrence; few New Englanders came.

August 26, 1854
John Calhoun appointed Surveyor General of Kansas; land surveys began.

September 15, 1854
Leavenworth Herald first published, generally pro government.

October 7, 1854
Gov. Andrew H. Reeder established office at Fort Leavenworth.

October 15, 1854
Lawrence Kansas Tribune published, followed by Herald of Freedom on October 21; both were antigovernment and antislavery.

November 24, 1854
Governor’s office moved to Shawnee Methodist Mission.

November 29, 1854
J. W. Whitfield elected territorial delegate to Congress, pro government.

February 3, 1855
Squatter Sovereign published at Atchison, initially pro slavery.

February 28, 1855
Census counted 8,501 whites; 151 free blacks, 192 slaves; majority were Missourians and other Westerners.

March 30, 1855
Election for territorial legislature, pro government victory, much fraud.

May 22, 1855
New election for legislative delegates in districts with known fraud.

July 2, 1855
Legislature met at Pawnee, refused to seat delegates chosen in new election.

July 6, 1855
Legislature removed to Shawnee Methodist Mission; session passed “Bogus Laws” based primarily on Missouri code; protected slavery but also created government structure.

August 8, 1855
Legislature selected Lecompton as permanent capital.

August 16, 1855
Gov. Reeder dismissed from office by President Pierce.

September 5-6, 1855
Free State Party formed at Big Springs Convention.

September 7, 1855
Wilson Shannon became governor.

October 23, 1855
Topeka Constitutional Convention opened, Free State.

November 14, 1855
Law and Order Party organized at convention in Leavenworth.

December 3-9, 1855
Siege of Lawrence by Missourians and others (Wakarusa War), no casualties.

December 15, 1855
Topeka Constitution approved by Free State voters; excluded all blacks.

January 15, 1856
State officers elected under Topeka Constitution, Charles Robinson governor.

January 24, 1856
President Pierce declared Topeka government to be in rebellion.

March 4, 1856
Topeka legislature convened; adjourned March 8; passed few laws.

April 1856
Major Buford arrived with men from South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama.

April 19, 1856
Sheriff Samuel Jones shot in back in Lawrence, badly wounded.

May 10, 1856
Gov. Robinson arrested for treason, released on bail four months later.

May 21, 1856
Sheriff Jones and posse destroyed Free State Hotel and two presses in Lawrence.

May 24-25, 1856
Pottawatomie Massacre; five killed.

June 2, 1856
Battle of Black Jack, Free-State victory, no casualties.

June 30, 1856
Topeka Constitution rejected by Congress, Topeka government not legal.

July 4, 1856
Topeka legislature dispersed by U.S. troops.

August 15, 1856
Fort Saunders captured by Free-State men, no casualties.

August 16, 1856
Fort Titus captured by Free-State men, one killed.

August 18, 1856
Gov. Shannon removed from office.

August 25, 1856
Acting Gov. David Woodson declared Kansas Territory in open rebellion.

August 30, 1856
Battle of Osawatomie, pro government victory, seven killed; Osawatomie burned.

September 9, 1856
John W. Geary became governor.

September 13-14, 1856
Battle of Hickory Point, no victor, probably two killed; 101 Free-Staters arrested by U.S. troops.

September 15, 1856
Lawrence besieged by militia: Gov. Geary disbanded militia.

October 6, 1856
Election of territorial legislature; Free-State men did not participate.

October 10, 1856
Free-State “Army of the North” entered Kansas via Iowa and Nebraska.

October 20, 1856
Surveyor General’s office moved to Lecompton, now functioning as capital.

November 17, 1856
Auction of “surplus” land of Delaware Indians began.

November 29, 1856
J. W. Whitfield elected territorial delegate to Congress, pro government.

January 7, 1857
Free-State legislature met at Topeka.

January 12, 1857
Law and Order Party reorganized as National Democratic Party at Lecompton.

January 12, 1857
Second territorial legislature convened at Lecompton, relatively moderate.

January 19, 1857
William Sherrard threatened Gov. Geary over political appointment.

February 9, 1857
Gov. Geary requested military protection against assassins.

February 18, 1857
William Sherrard killed during public rally in Lecompton.

February 20, 1857
Legislature chartered St. Joseph and Topeka Railroad Company; most legislation concerned such routine matters.

March 20, 1857
Gov. Geary resigned.

Spring 1857
U.S. land office opened in Lecompton; land claims now could be officially filed.

May 24, 1857
Gov. Robert J. Walker arrived, promised fair dealings with all political factions.

June 24, 1857
“Surplus” Peoria, Kaskaskia, Wea, and Pinakashaw Indian lands sold.

July 15, 1857
Gov. Walker declared Lawrence in rebellion for establishing illegal government.

August 20, 1857
Charles Robinson acquitted of charge of treason by district court.

September 7, 1857
Lecompton Constitutional Convention convened, pro government.

October 5-6, 1857
Free-Staters elected majority to territorial legislature for first time.

November 19, 1857
Sale of “surplus” Shawnee Indian land began.

December 7, 1857
Acting governor Frederick Stanton called extra session of legislature.

December 17, 1857
Extra session adjourned calling for vote on entire Lecompton Constitution.

December 17, 1857
Gov. Walker resigned; Sec. Stanton removed from office.

December 17, 1857
U.S. troops sent to quell troubles in Fort Scott area.

December 21, 1857
James W. Denver became acting governor.

December 21, 1857
Lecompton Constitution with slavery approved by pro government voters; Free-Staters did not participate.

January 4, 1858
First session of legislature to be controlled by Free-Staters met at Lecompton.

January 4, 1858
Lecompton Constitution rejected by second election.

March 4, 1858
Last meeting of Topeka legislature, no quorum because of lack of interest.

March 23, 1858
Constitutional convention met at Minneola, voted to move to Leavenworth.

May 18, 1858
Leavenworth Constitution approved by voters; would prohibit slavery and allow black citizenship.

May 19, 1858
Marais des Cygnes Massacre, five killed.

August 2, 1858
Final vote to reject Lecompton Constitution under English Bill.

October 10, 1858
Gov. Denver resigned.

December 1, 1858
Samuel Medary became governor.

December 16, 1858
James Montgomery raided Fort Scott and freed prisoner, one killed.

December 20, 1858
John Brown freed 11 slaves in Missouri, one killed.

December 28, 1858
Gov. Medary requested troops for Bourbon, Linn, and Lykins counties.

January 25, 1859
Battle of the Spurs, John Brown left Kansas with 12 freed slaves, no shots fired, no casualties.

February 23, 1859
Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad opened; connected Kansas to the East.

May 18, 1859
Free-State Party reorganized as Republican Party at Osawatomie.

July 5, 1859
Wyandotte Constitutional Convention opened.

August 15, 1859
Telegraph line reached Leavenworth.

October 4, 1859
Voters accepted Wyandotte Constitution 10,420 to 5,530, antislavery.

December 1, 1859
Presidential candidate Abraham Lincoln began speaking tour in Elwood.

December 6, 1859
Charles Robinson elected governor under Wyandotte Constitution.

March 20, 1860
Construction began on Elwood & Marysville Railroad, first in Kansas.

April 3, 1860
Pony Express service began, crossing northeastern Kansas.

April 11, 1860
U.S. House accepted Wyandotte Constitution.

June 1, 1860
Census listed 107,204 people in Kansas, primarily Westerners.

November 28, 1860
Gov. Medary requested U.S. troops for Linn and Bourbon counties.

December 17, 1860
Gov. Medary resigned; George M. Beebe became acting governor.

January 7, 1861
Last territorial legislature met at Lecompton, adjourned to Lawrence.

January 21, 1861
U. S. Senate approved Wyandotte Constitution; slave states had seceded.

January 29, 1861
President Buchanan signed bill admitting Kansas as state.

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